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Palm Oil

Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceaa)

Origin

Cambodia

Ivory Coast (Côte d’Ivoire)

Description

The oil palm is a plant of up to 30 m with huge leaves, a dense crown and a trunk of up to 50 cm. Located at the crown one finds about forty leaves, up to 7.5 m each. The 1 m long petiole wears 4 cm long spikes at the upper end. His male- and female inflorescences develop at periodic changes. The fruit of the oil palm are in up to 25 kg fruit bunches and consist of 1,000 to 4,000 fruits. Each individual fruit is 2.5 to 3 cm long, has a diameter of 2.5 cm and is about 3 to 30 g in weight. The epicarp of the fruit is thin and reddish orange. The color can, however, depending on the type, vary from yellow orange, red, brown or black. The mesocarp which has an orange or reddish-brown color, is fibrous and oily. The seed of the oil palm is a nut and consists of a shell or endocarp and one or more cores. The cores consist of layers of hard, oily endosperm and an embryo. The mesocarp of the fruits contains 45 to 60% palm oil and the seeds 43 to 52% palm kernel oil.

Occurence

The oil palm and its fruits serve two different oils: palm oil, which consists of the mesocarp of the fruit and palm kernel oil, which is obtained from the seeds of the palm fruit.

The oil palm has its origins in tropical Africa and Angola. With the increasing use of vegetable fats and an growing demand, an increased cultivation of the plant followed so that today palm oil cultures are found over the tropic belt around the world. The main growing areas are in Southeast Asia, Africa and Southamerica. The main production countries are Malaysia and Indonesia

Cultivation

The climatically favorable growing areas within the 10 degree latitudes, north and south, at altitudes of up to 700 m. The average annual temperature should be 24 to 27 degrees C and the annual rainfall at 2000 to 3000 mm.

A steady mix of sunshine and rain is important for flowering and the development of the fruit. A deep soil, rich in humus, slightly acidic and loose, promotes root development. For cultivating the seeds, they are planted in boxes at 37 to 40 °C and as soon as 2 to 3 green leaves have been formed, are planted in sunny beds. After 10 to 14 months, the seedlings are planted in the plantation. After about four years of high growth of the palm tree, maturity is achieved and the first fruits begin begin to grow. The development and maturity of the fruit lasts, depending on the geographical bearings, 5 to 8 months. A high level of income is reached in the 12th year and remains constant up to the 20th year. The average annual yield is about 120 kg.

Character

Color: Dark yellow to red-yellow fat

Odor: Weak, fresh light green

Fatty acid composition in %
Lauric acid 0.1 – 1.0
Myristic acid 0.9 – 1.5
Palmitin 42 – 47
Palmitolein 0.1 – 0.3
Stearic acid 4.2 – 5.1
Oleic acid 37 – 41
Linoleic acid 9 – 11
Linolensäure 0.3 – 0.6
Arachinsäure 0.2 – 0.7
Physical Characteristics
Refractive index: n20/D 1.449 – 1.456
Density: d 40/20 0.891 – 0.899
Saponification: 190 – 209
Iodine: 49 – 55
Unsaponifiables: 0.1 – 1.2
Melting point: 33 – 40 ° C

.

Oil extraction

Bei der Gewinnung von Palmöl fällt als Nebenprodukt Palmkernöl an. Hierbei werden die Palmfrüchte in Mühlen gepresst. Man erhält aus dem fleischigen Mesocarp das Palmöl, die Nüsse überstehen jedoch diesen Druck ohne zu brechen. Sie werden nun von den Fasern des Mesocarps gereinigt, von den Schalen befreit und bis auf einen Feuchtigkeits-gehalt von 8 % getrocknet, um ein Schimmelwachstum zu unterbinden. Die Palmkerne werden dann in Schraubpressen zu Palmkernöl und Palmkernmehl gepresst. Um noch mehr Öl zu erhalten, kann der Presskuchen danach mit Lösungsmitteln extrahiert werden. Dieser Vorgang wird jedoch immer mehr obsolet, da er ökonomisch nicht sinnvoll scheint.

Application

Food industry

Palm oil is very suitable for cooking, frying and deep-frying due to its excellent thermal and oxidation stability. In addition, it is used in the food processing industry for baking, the production of margarine and confections.

In the industry

Industrial palm oil can be used to make soaps and candles as well as energy.

Source Wikipedia 31.1.2012

Palm Stearin

Palmstearin is a derivate from the fractionation of palmoil

Origin

Cambodia

Ivory Coast (Côte d’Ivoire)

Fractionation

Fractionation is the physical separation of harder and softer fatty acids in a centrifuge. To obtain this the centrifuge takes advantage of the natural difference of the specific weights of the fatty acids.

Depending on the nature of the process, this separates the Palm Stearin from the Palm Olein (between 20 to 30 percent palm stearin and 70 to 80 percent palm olein).

Palm stearin derives its name from the fact that it consists mainly of fatty acid called stearic acid.

The palm stearin has a melting point of about 50 to 51 degrees Celsius after a single fraction.

For specific applications, the palm oil is also fractionated several times. This makes the palm stearin harder and the palm olein all the softer

Fatty acids

Because of the high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the so called soft-oils, such as soybean oil, sunflower oil, etc., they were made hard through hydrogenation for a wider use in certain finished products to replace the more and more unpopular animal fats.

Through hydrogenation, the mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids are brought into a more stable and easily storable form. For this process, mostly nickel (or other heavy metals) is used as a catalyst.

Unfortunately, as so often with technological achievements, the disadvantages are often known only much later. On the one hand, the first issues appeared related to the content of heavy metals. However, since heavy metals are relatively expensive in the form of an anode, the industry had to hold its own interest, to keep the loss of nickel as low as possible and therewith also the detectable residual nickel contents were far pushed down. Today, the food industry allowas a maximum of tolerance of 2 ppm per kilo fat or oil.

A few years ago, research found that the trans- and cis-fatty acids, which are formed during the hydrogenation process are not without problems for our health. In particular, the trans fatty acids are proven polluters and are cause for diseases such as atherosclerosis and heart attack.

Therefore, in recent years trends emerged laying down Höch held on trans fatty acids in fats and oils. In general, the European food industry limited voluntarily to a maximum of 6 percent. but in certain countries now there are also regulations with maximum values of 2 to 3 percent.

Soft Oils

Because of the high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the so called soft-oils, such as soybean oil, sunflower oil, etc., they were made hard through hydrogenation for a wider use in certain finished products to replace the more and more unpopular animal fats.

Through hydrogenation, the mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids are brought into a more stable and easily storable form. For this process, mostly nickel (or other heavy metals) is used as a catalyst.

Unfortunately, as so often with technological achievements, the disadvantages are often known only much later. On the one hand, the first issues appeared related to the content of heavy metals. However, since heavy metals are relatively expensive in the form of an anode, the industry had to hold its own interest, to keep the loss of nickel as low as possible and therewith also the detectable residual nickel contents were far pushed down. Today, the food industry allowas a maximum of tolerance of 2 ppm per kilo fat or oil.

A few years ago, research found that the trans- and cis-fatty acids, which are formed during the hydrogenation process are not without problems for our health. In particular, the trans fatty acids are proven polluters and are cause for diseases such as atherosclerosis and heart attack.

Therefore, in recent years trends emerged laying down Höch held on trans fatty acids in fats and oils. In general, the European food industry limited voluntarily to a maximum of 6 percent. but in certain countries now there are also regulations with maximum values of 2 to 3 percent

Palm Olein

Palm Olein is the main product of the fractionation of palm oil

Origin

Cambodia

Ivory Coast (Côte d’Ivoire)

Quality

Palm olein is obtained as the main product by the fractionation of crude of palm oil. Depending on the quality and type of process, the yield in Palm Olein is 70 to 80 percent.

Palm olein is the preferred cooking and frying oil in Asia, especially in countries like India (a demand of about 8.5 million mt of palm oil and palm oil products), China (about 6.5 million mt), Pakistan, etc ..

For special purposes, the palm olein is fractionated several times. Commercially available palm olein has an iodine value of 52 to 53 (international measure of the hardness of a fat or oil, the higher the iodine value, the softer the fat or oil). Palm olein may be prepared with an iodine value from 56 to 64 depending on the application, some producers even reach an iodine value of 70.

Red Palmolein

Palm olein is obtained as the main product by the fractionation of crude of palm oil. Depending on the quality and type of process, the yield in Palm Olein is 70 to 80 percent.

Palm olein is the preferred cooking and frying oil in Asia, especially in countries like India (a demand of about 8.5 million mt of palm oil and palm oil products), China (about 6.5 million mt), Pakistan, etc ..

For special purposes, the palm olein is fractionated several times. Commercially available palm olein has an iodine value of 52 to 53 (international measure of the hardness of a fat or oil, the higher the iodine value, the softer the fat or oil). Palm olein may be prepared with an iodine value from 56 to 64 depending on the application, some producers even reach an iodine value of 70.

Manufacturing

Palm olein is usually herstgestellt in the main producing countries for palm oil in Malaysia and Indonesia. Especially Malaysia because Malaysia has occupied except for a contingent of annually about 6 million mt of crude palm oil, unprocessed exports with a high export duty for decades, is the main exporter.

Palm Kernel Oil

Derivate Product from the Palmfruit

Origin

Cambodia

Ivory Coast (Côte d’Ivoire)

Occurence

The oil palm and its fruits serve two different oils: palm oil, which consists of the mesocarp of the fruit and which is obtained from the seeds of the palm kernel oil.

The oil palm has its origins in tropical Africa and Angola. With the increasing use of vegetable fats and an increased demand increased cultivation of the plant followed so that today cultures over the tropics around the world expand. The main growing areas are in Southeast Asia, Africa and Südmaerika. The main production countries are Malaysia and Indonesia.

Description

The oil palm is up to 30 m high plant with huge leaves dense crown and up to 50 cm thick trunk. located at the crown about forty up to 7.5 m long leaves. The 1 m long petiole wears long spikes at the upper end 4 cm. His Male Dog-and female inflorescences develop in the periodic change. The fruit of the oil palm are in up to 25 kg fruit stalls and consist of 1,000 to 4,000 fruits. Each individual is 2.5 to 3 cm long, has a diameter of 2.5 cm and is about 3 to 30 g in weight. The epicarp of the fruit is thin and reddish orange. The color can, however, depending on the type into the Yellow vary orange, red, brown or black. The mesocarp which has an orange or reddish-brown color, is fibrous and oily. The seed of the oil palm is a nut and consists of a shell or endocarp and one or more cores. The cores consist of layers of hard, oily endosperm and an embryo. The mesocarp of the fruits contains 45 to 60% palm oil un the seeds 43 to 52% palm kernel oil.

Cultivation

The climatically favorable growing areas within the 10 northern and southern latitude at altitudes up to 700 m. The average annual temperature should be 24 to 27 degrees C and the annual rainfall at 2000 to 3000 mm.

A steady mix of sunshine and rain is important for flowering and the development of the fruit. A profound, rich in humus, slightly acidic and loose soil promotes root development. For cultivating the entpulpten seeds are drawn in boxes at 37 to 40 ° C and as soon as 2 to 3 green leaves have been formed, were planted in beds sunny. After 10 to 14 months, the planting is done, after about four years of high growth of the palm tree and the maturity of the first fruit begins. The development and maturity of the fruit lasts, depending on the geographical bearings, 5 to 8 months. A level of income is reached in the 12th year and remains constant up to the 20th year. The average annual yield is about 120 kg.

Oil extraction

Palm kernel oil is a by-product in the production of palm oil. Here, the palm fruits are pressed in mills. This gave the palm oil from the fleshy mesocarp, but the nuts withstand this pressure without breaking. You will now be cleaned from the fibers of the mesocarp, freed from the shells and up to a moisture content of 8% dried to prevent mold growth. The kernels are then pressed in screw presses to palm kernel oil and palm kernel meal. In order to obtain even more oil, the press cake can then be extracted with solvents. This process is, however, more and more obsolete because it does not seem economically sensible

Character

Farbe: weiss, leicht gelblich, fast farblos

Geruch: krautig, eukalyptusartig, leicht grün, würzig, leicht fruchtig, süss, Zitronennote

in %
Capronsäure < 0.8
Caprylsäure 2 – 6
Laurinsäure 40 – 55
Myristinsäure 14 – 18
Palmitinsäure 7 – 10
Palmitoleinsäure < 0.1
Stearinsäure 1.3 – 3
Ölsäure 12 – 21
Linolsäure 1 – 4
Linolensäure < 0.7
Arachinsäure < 0.3
Physikalische Kennzahlen
Schmelzpunkt: 21 – 25 ° C
Brechungsindex: n20/D 1.448 – 1.452
Dichte: d 40/20 0.899 – 0.94
Verseifungszahl: 230 – 234
Iodzahl: 14.1 – 21
Unverseibares: 0.1 – 0.8 %
Schmelzpunkt: 23 – 30 ° C
Application

In the food industry, palm kernel oil is often used for the production of margarine, the relatively large proportion of short chain fatty acids helps to impart a buttery taste of margarine.

At body temperature, palm kernel oil is melting rapidly, leaving behind a pleasant cooling effect. Therefore, it is like added to cocoa icings, confection, cream coatings and cool-melting chocolate fillings. Even for Her-position of toffees and caramels using the oil. It thereby contributing to the hardness and flavor formation. Various modifications can be out of the palm kernel oil

produce high-quality specialty fats for the confectionery industry.

Oleochemie

Industrial find palm kernel oil similar use such as palm oil. In a large scale it is used for making oleochemical intermediates which are used in the cosmetic and detergent industry.

Aluminiumindustrie

Here palm kernel oil is used as rolling and deep-drawing grease for aluminum sheets.

Source: Encyclopedia of vegetable fats and oils, Springer Verlag / Images Wikipedia

Coconut Oil

Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae), Coconut Palm

Origin

Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast)

Mozambique

Occurence

The area of the Malay Archipelago is assumed as the original home of the coconut tree, where their culture can look back on a history of 3000 to 4000 years. Today it is distributed in all tropical regions and is also cultivated. It is particularly common to find on the coasts as the Palm prefers salt-laden sea air. In addition, the coconut palm tree requires uniform heat. The annual average should be between 20°C and 25°C and never below 20°C during the coldest months. The coconut palm grows on all soils, as long as the physical structure allows for adequate moisture and a good air and water balance.

Description

Under normal conditions, the coconut tree reaches a height of 30 to 35 m and develops a lean, columnar, unbranched stem that grows from the ground usually slightly curved. A mature coconut palm carries between 25 and 40 fronds. The leaf-fronds are 4 – 6 m long, with a woody midrib and 150 to 180 leaflets which are 90 cm long and leathery.

The inflorescences sprout laterally from the leaf axis, at the base in groups of three, each with one yellowish-green female flower and two yellowish male flowers. However, since the flowers unfold at different times, the pollination will always happen with pollen from another inflorescence of the same tree or with those of a neighboring tree. Pollination occurs by both insects and by wind-transmission. Only about a quarter to a third of the fertilized flowers mature from the fully developed fruit. The fruit is a drupe and matures 13 months after the opening of the flower. The ripeness is externally recognizable by the dry shell, the exocarp. At that time, the nuts are at their highest weight in copra, the pulp. Depending on the variety, a ripe fruit weighs 1.5 to 2.5 kg. A fully-bearing palm may produce 60 to 160 nuts, hybrids are know to grow up to 450 nuts per year.

Cultivation

Wirtschaftliche Bedeutung erlangten Kokosnüsse erst im 19. Jahrhundert. Die ersten, von Holländern auf Ceylon angelegten Plantagen stammen aus der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts. Heute werden Kokosnüsse auf beiden Seiten des Äquators in den tropischen Zonen im Küstenbereich und im Landesinnern an Flussufern angebaut. Die Weltproduktion and Kokosnüssen lösst sich schwer abschätzen, da ein grosser Teil davon lokal verzehrt wird und nie in Handelsstatistiken erscheint.

Ausserdem pflanzt und beerntet man Kokospalmen nicht nur in Plantagen, sondern auch an Strassenrändern und in Gärten. Es ist deshalb schwierig, Produktionsziffern sowie An-bauflächen korrekt zu erfassen.

Überblick über die wichtigsten Anbauländer für Kokosnüsse (in Mio. Tonnen)

Indonesien 16.235
Philippinen 12.562
Indien 9.151
Sir Lanka 1.950
Brasilien 1.880
Thailand 1.373
Mexiko 1.213

Globale Produktion 50.074 Mio Tonnen

Die Kokosnussproduktion hat sich seit 1980 von 32.215 Mio mt auf 50.074 Mio stark erhöht. Für über 400 Millionen Menschen der tropischen Regionen ist die Kokospalme die wichtigste Nutzpflanze und die entscheidende Fett- und Eiweissquelle.

Oil extraction

Kokosöl wird auch als Kokosfett bezeichnet, da es bei Raumtemperatur fest ist. Der Grund dafür liegt im hohen Anteil an gesättigten Fettsäuren, der ungefähr 90 % beträgt. Es wird aber wegen seines niedrigen Schmelzpunktes von ca 23 ° C sehr leicht flüssig. Es wird durch Auspressen aus dem zerkleinerten und getrockneten Nährgewebe der Kokosnuss, dem Kopra, gewonnen. Die frische Kopra wird getrocknet, gepresst und das Öl anschliessend raffiniert. Kokosöl kann erst nach der Raffination und Desodorierung als Speisefett verwendet werden.

Character

Ebenso wird aus den enthaltenen Caprylsäuremethylester und Octylalkohol Octylaldehyd gewonnen, was zur Herstellung von synthetischem  Rosenöl und Citronenöl dient. Obwohl Kokosöl nur ein geringes Eindringvermögen in die Haut hat, wird es dennoch in der Kosmetik wegen seiner feuchtigkeitsspendenden Wirkung und dem kühlenden Effekt auf der Haut häufig eingesetzt. Es findet Anwendung als Zusatz in Haarpomaden, Haar-Pflegeprodukten, Sonnenschutzcremen, After-Sun-Produkten, Badeölen, Cremen und Massageölen.

Farbe: weiss bis gelblich

Geruch: schwach fettig, wachsartig, frisch, leichte Kokosnote, mild.

in %
Caprylsäure 5 – 10
Caprinsäure 5 – 10
Laurinsäure 45 – 52
Myristinsäure 17 – 20
Palmitinsäure 7 – 10
Palmitoleinsäure < 0.1
Stearinsäure 2 – 5
Ölsäure 4 – 8
Linolsäure 1 – 2
Capronsäure 0.2
Arachinsäure 0.1
Physikalische Kennzahlen
Brechungsindex: n40/D 1.4485 – 1.4495
Dichte: d 40/20 0.92 – 0.93
Verseifungszahl: 242 – 263
Iodzahl: 7 – 10
Unverseibares: 0.5 %
Schmelzpunkt: 21 – 25 ° C
Application

Coconut oil can be used in cooking as a normal cooking oil for baking, roasting and frying. It is solid at room temperature, but is quickly liquid because of its low melting point.

Since coconut oil contains caprylic and capric acid, it can enriched after saponifaction and be processed into medium-chain triglycerides. Medium Tyglyceride have a chain length of 6 – 12 atoms. They are easy to digest because they can be absorbed without pancreatic lipase and bile acids and directly via the portal vein into the liver. They are used as fuels in parenteral nutrition of critically ill patients, also as dietetic products in conditions of insufficient fat absorption instead of the usual edible fats – steatorrhea, enteritis, after small bowel resection. However, they can be ge-stores as well as not after absorption. As unwanted side effects often occur abdominal pain and diarrhea.

In the confectionery industry coconut oil is used because of its cooling effect for waffle fillings, coating compositions and ice-cream. It is also an important additive in chocolate production. The refining process produces fatty acids which are used in the production of synthetic resins, insecticides and medicines used.

Sunflower Oil

Helianthus annuus L., Sunflower

Origin

Tanzania

Mozambique

Occurence

Originally, the sunflower comes from North America and has been used there for three to four millennia to produce oil. The Indians cultivated sunflower long before the discovery of the “new world”. It is believed that the sunflower came to Europe by the Spanish discoverers, and then spread through Italy, Germany and France. Today, it has become one of the most important oil plants in Russia and Ukraine. Sunfflower is cultivated in North America, South America and Europe. Sunflower is in third largest oil plant after soybean and oil palm.

Description

Die Sonnenblumen ist eine 1.5 bis 2.5 m hoch werdende Pflanze mit einem kräftigen, verzweigten , beblätterten, wenig rauhaarigen Stängel. Die Sonnenblume ist ein Musterbeispiel Phototropismus. Darunter versteht man die Krümmungsreaktionen, die auf Wachstum beruhen und durch Licht verursacht werden. Ihre Blätter sind herzförmig, wachsen gegen- bis wechselständig, sind ober- und unterseits kurz rauhaarig, lang gestielt, und am Rande stark gezähnt. Die Blütenköpfe der Sonnenblume sind sehr gross (10 bis 40 cm breit). Ihre Zungenblüten sind 5 bis 10 cm lang und gelb bis orange gefärbt. Die Röhrenblüten dagegen sind sehr zahlreich, bräunlich gefärbt und werden von vielen Insekten besucht. Die Früchte der Sonnenblume, aus denen das Öl gewonnen wird, sind 0.8 bis 1.7 cm lang und 0.4 bis 0.9 cm breit. Nach dem Verblühen enthält der Blütenkorb oft bis zu 2000 Samenkerne. Ihre Farbe ist variabel von schwarz bis weisslich und schwarz-weiss längsgestreift. Die Schale der Sonnenblumenkerne ist lederartig-holzig und leicht vom Samen trennbar. Grösse und Gewicht der Sonnenblumenkernsamen können stark variiren. Ausser fettem Öl (40 bis 50 %) sind in den Früchten Eiweiss (ca. 24 %), Saccharose, Cholin, Beatin und Gerbstoffe enthalten. Bei Befall der Kerne durch Schimmpilze kann dazu das Mykotoxin Rubratoxin B gebildet werden.

Cultivation

The development of the plant depends much on temperature. In the typical growing areas the summers are short and hot, seed depth and stands are different depending on the variety. Small-seeded varieties are sown 3 cm deep, with a row distance of 30 to 45 cm and a distance in the range of 15 to 20 cm. Large-growing varieties need larger spacing.

Oil extraction

The recovery of the oil is carried out by milling and subsequent hot or cold pressing of the mature, hulled seeds. The oil thus obtained is then often refined.

Character

Farbe: kaltgepresstes Sonnenblumenöl ist hellgelb, warm gepresstes hat eine rotgelbeFarbe, die leicht entfärbt werden kann, extrahiertes und raffiniertes Öl ist klar und hellgelb

Geruch: aromatisch fettig, nussig, Röstnote, holzig, Grünnote. Sowohl kalt- als auch warmgepresstes und extrahiertes Öl sind fast geruchslos.

Fettsäurezusammensetzung: in %
Myristinsäure 0.1 – 05
Palmitinsäure 5 – 8
Palmitoleinsäure 0.1 – 0.3
Stearinsäure 2 – 7
Ölsäure 13 – 14
Linolsäure 48 – 74
Linolensäure 0.1 – 0.3
Arachinsäure 0.2 – 0.5
Eicosansäure 0.2 – 0.5
Behensäure 0.4 – 1.3
Lignocerinsäure 0.2 – 0.4
Physikalische Kennzahlen
Brechungsindex: n25/D 1.472 – 1.476
n40 1.467 – 1469
Dichte: d 15/15 0.922 – 0.926
20 0.918 – 0.923
Verseifungszahl: 186 – 194
Iodzahl: 118 – -145
Unverseibares: 0 – 1.5 %
Schmelzpunkt: – 16 – -18 ° C
Application

In pharmacy and medicine

In the pharmaceutical industry, sunflower oil is used as indifferent filler for soft gelatin capsules and for the production of ointments and creams as well as for substitution of olive and peanut oil in pharmaceutical preparations.

In the kitchen

Cold-pressed sunflower oil is an excellent and valuable cooking and salad oil , same as wheat germ oil, it is also used as a dietetic food. For this purpose it is safe for use in infant formula and is used in the food industry for the production of mayonnaise and salad dressings, as well as the production of margarine.

 

In the industry

Industrially it is used in the manufacture of colors, soaps and oilpaints for artists. In addition, it can be applied to leather processing and as a preservative in textile manufacturing. Hot-pressed oil can be used exclusively for industrial purposes. Because of its sensitivity to oxidation, sunflower oil has a small application in the use in cosmetics.

 

In folk medicine

Holicist medicine uses sunflower oil to be administered internally for constipation and for external use for poorly healing wounds, skin lesions, psoriasis and rheumatism.

Groundnut Oil

The peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

Origin

Senegal

Sudan

Parent Plant

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea), also known as Ashanti, arachis or Cameroon nut, is a plant of  the subfamily Faboideae within the family of the Fabaceae or Leguminosae.

The peanut grows as annual herbaceous plant. The flowering period is from may to august. The carpel usually has two to four, rarely up to six ovules. The Gynophor or Karpophor (base of carpel )extend to a length of up to 20 cm and cringes after fertilization – this is how the fruit passes under the ground.

Occurence

Ursprünglich in den Anden Südamerikas (Boliivien wird als Ursprung vermutet) beheimatet, hat sich der Anbau der Erdnuss seit ihrer wachsenden Bedeutung als Ölfrucht über die ganzen Tropen und Subtropen ausgebreitet. Die grösste Produktion erfolgt in Indien und China, wo sie bereits in vorchristlicher Zeit als Kulturpflanze gehzogen wurde. Afrikanische Staaten wie Nigeria und Senegal liefern heute etwa 20 Prozent der Weltproduktion, gefolgt von den USA mit 9 %. Weltweit werden jährlich etwa 33 Millionen Tonnen Erdnüsse geernetet. Archäologen datieren die ältesten Funde domestizierter Erdnüsse aus Peru auf ein Alter von 7600 Jahren. Von dort verbreitete sich der Erdnussanbau auf weitere Teile Süd- und Mittelamerika.

Description

Arachis hypogaea is a one year crop, up to 60 cm high, branched at the base, densely leafy, a prostrate plant. The leaves are ovate and twisted, paired and feathered. The flowers are golden brown, 1 – 2 cm long and standing in short-stalked inflorescences in the leaf axils. After insemination, a nail-shaped fruit-bearer, developed at the base of the ovary, which inclines and penetrates into the soil. Only when the tip of the fruit body has reached a depth of 5 to 10 cm, the fruit will develop. No fruit above the ground. The fruit has a yellow, wrinkled sleeve in which at most two seeds are surrounded by a thin, reddish-brown shell. All peanut varieties can be divided into two groups: with erect stems and with creeping stems. When creeping varieties all ineminated ovaries reach the ground, which is not always the case in upright varieties.

Cultivation

The peanut plant grows best in loamy sand – or sandy loam which store water well and are neutral to slightly alkaline. The plant loves warmth, but must be irrigated in dry areas. She can’t stand long-lasting moisture and even dies at sustained wetness. Crust forming soils are unsuitable for cultivation because the fruit bodies cannot penetrate the soil. The soil should be loosened for the upright varieties, in order to achieve optimum crop. The peanut plant cannot withstand frost.

Oil extraction

Zum Ernten wird die Pfahlwurzel durchschnitten, die Sprosse aus der Erde gehoben und die Frucht 2 bis 4 Wochen getrocknet. Die Samen enthalten ca. 45 % Öl. Zur Gewinnung des Öls werden die Samen zuerst mit Hilfe von Riffelwalzen oder Scheibenmühlen von ihren Hülsen befreit. Anschliessend werden die Samenkerne über Siebe gereinigt, auf Walzenstühlen zerkleinert  und in Schneckenpressen vorgepresst. Den Restgehalt an Öl gewinnt, mann durch Extraktion mit Hexan. Die Erdnüsse können vor der Pressung auch gefriergetrocknet werden. Kaltgepresstes und extrahiertes Öl lässt sicht leicht mit Lauge entsäuren, mit Aktivkohle bleichen und desodorieren. Spuren von Aflotoxinen, die ins Öl gelangen, werden während des Neutralisationsprozesses durch die Laugenbehandlung inaktiviert. Aus 100 kg Erdnüssen, die ca. 30 kg Schalen und 70 kg Samen enthalten, können etwa 34 kg Öl erhalten werden. Zudem kann Erdnussöl durch partielle Hydrierung zu gehärtetem Öl weiterverarbeitet werden, welches dann als Salbengrundlage verwendet wird.

Character

Farbe: Erdnussöl ist eine klare, gelblich viskose Flüssigkeit. Afrikanisches Erdnussöl ist farblos und leicht gelbstichig.

Geruch: Erdnussöl hat eine leichte bis deutliche Erdnussquote, leicht fruchtig, röstig (falls vor der Pressung geröstet). Gehärtetes Erdnussöl ist fast geruchlos.

Fettsäurezusammensetzung: in %
Palmitinsäure 8 – 13
Palmitoleinsäure 0.1 – 0.3
Stearinsäure 1 – 4
Ölsäure 35 – 66
Linolsäure 14 – 41
Linolensäure 0.3
Arachinsäure 1 – 2
Eicosansäure 1 – 2
Behensäure 2 – 5
Lignocerinsäure 1 – 2
Physikalische Kennzahlen
Erdnussöl
Brechungsindex: n20/D 1.40 – 1.465
Dichte: d 15/15 0.912 – 0.918
Verseifungszahl: 187 – 196
Iodzahl: 83 – 107
Unverseibares: 1 %
Schmelzpunkt: – 2° C
Afrikanisches Erdnussöl
Brechungsindex: n20/D 1.470 – 1.472
Dichte: d 15/15 0.914 – 0.917
Verseifungszahl: 189 – 196
Iodzahl: 85 – 90
Application

In pharmacy and medicine

Due to its content of unsaturated fatty acids in the Trialglycedes, peanut oil belongs to that group of oils which can reduce blood cholesterol levels in humans. Also used as an enema for softening hard feces in the rectum.

Pharmaceuticals

Here it is as a carrier for fat-soluble active ingredients for external enteral or parenteral use, especially for sexual hormones with a depot effect, and as oil for eye drops.

Dermatology

Peanut oil against crusts and scaling of the hairy. Peanut oil can be used for infant care as well as a bath additive, for the treatment of subacute and chronic eczema, in atrophic eczema and ichthyosis.

Drug manufacturing

Because of the high water absorption capacity, it is used as an ointment base.

Since it tends to be strong in rancidity despite partial hydrogenation because of double bindings,it  is used less and less. But in ancient recipes as with camphor ointment, it is still an ingredient in the recipe.

In cosmetics

As a massage oil and skin protection.

In the food industry

The peanut oil is very suitable for frying, it can be heated up to 230 ° C . It has limited use for salads.

Source: Encyclopedia of vegetable fats and oils, Springer Verlag

Safflower Oil

Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius L. (Asteraceae)

Origin

Tanzania

Occurence

Its origin is probably between Asia Minor and the Indian subcontinent. Since ancient times it has been cultivated in Persia, the East Indies, China, Japan, North Africa and Southern Europe. From the  modern Turkey, the plant spread in the Mediterranean and arrived with the Romans to Central Europe. In the Middle Ages it was known as color plant in the first place. In the 19th century the cultivation of safflower for the production of colours almost disappeared due to the invention of synthetic dyes.

Description

Long tube, which are divided up into 5-lanceolate-rulers, about 4 to 6 mm long, two tabs of bright red color.

The fruit is a ivory color shooting fruit (achene). It is reverse oval to pear-shaped, 6-8 mm long, 3-4 mm wide and 2.5 mm thick. The 0.5 mm thick seed is about 5.7 mm long and yellowish gray to dirty white.

Safflower contains the fatty oil dye saflorrot, also called carthamin.

Cultivation

Today, the main purpose of cultivation is the oil recovery. The main producing countries are the US, Australia, Greece, Turkey and India.

The safflower thrives best in summer warm climate locations. It is largely not affected by draught. For the successful culture it even needs a certain aridity, as it is sensitive to the bud rot during after flowering. The safflower thrives on loamy sand or sandy loam and loess soils with a neutral reaction and open ground.

The sowing, which takes place in the spring is made 2 to 3 cm into the ground at a distance of 30 to 60 cm. So 20 to 30 kg of seeds can be planted per hectare.

The growing season extends over 4 to 5 months and provides yield on an average of 0.6 t / ha.

The safflower is a year-long culture (sometimes two-year), 10 to 60 cm tall plant with a strong taproot. The stem is erect, simple and ribbed at the top with a few, rigid branches, bald, whitish yellow and shiny. The leaves are bare, pretty soft, finely serrated on the edge at the top with thorns, clearly veined on the leaf surface.

The lowest are ovate-oblong, gradually narrowed in a short stemThe flowers are only rust-yellow, later vivid orange.

Oil extraction

The plant is harvested when pretty dry, but not dried up. Harvest time is from August to September by threshing the grains, the leaves are harvested by hand for further processing as a dye.

The safflower oil is obtained by pressing or extraction of the seeds. By cold pressing to obtain a compatible edible oil, by hot pressing an oil for technical applications. 100 kg of seed yield about 25 kg of crude oil by pressing, 28 kg if hexane extracted. Because of his scratchy taste the crude oil is then at least partially refined.

Character

Farbe: Intensiv, strahlend hell-bis dunkelgelb Geruch: krautig, nussig, pfeffrig.

Die Zusammensetzung des Safloröls variirt je nach Anbaugebiet. Man kann zwei Arten von Saflorölen unterscheiden, eines mit höherem Ölsäureanteil und eines, wo der Gehalt an Linolsäure überwiegt.

hoher Linolsäuregehalt hoher Ölsäuregehalt
in % in %
Myristinsäure
Palmitinsäure 5.3 – 8 5 – 7
Palmitoleinsäure 0.2 – 0.5 0.2 – 0.6
Stearinsäure 2 – 3 1.5 – 2
Ölsäure 8 – 30 73 – 80
Linolsäure 68 – 83 12 – 20
Linolensäure 0.1 – 0.2 0.2
Arachinsäure 0.2 – 0.4 0.2 – 0.3
Eicosansäure 0.1 – 0.3 0.1 – 0.2
Behensäure 0.1 – 0.8 0.1 – 0.2
Physikalische Kennzahlen
Brechungsindex: n20/D 1.4731 – 1.4754
Dichte: d 15/15 0.922 – 0.938
Verseifungszahl: 186 – 203
Iodzahl: 140 – 150
Unverseibares: 0.5 – 1.5 %
Schmelzpunkt: – 5 ° C
Erstarrungspunkt: – 13 bis – 20 ° C

Kaltgepresstes Speisedistelöl ist gekühlt und dunkel gelagert bis zu 12 Monate haltbar.

Quelle: Lexikon der pflanzlichen Fette und Öle, Springer Verlag/Bilder Wikipedia

Shea Butter

Shea Tree, Vitellaria paradoxa

Origin

Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast)

Occurence

The shea tree is spread from West Africa to the Upper Nile region and is a characteristic tree of the savanna wood country. The natural occurrence of the tree are the southern regions of the Sahel and the northern regions of the Guinea zone.

Description

The shea tree has a height from 6 – 12 m and is similarily cartilaginous as an oak. The large leaves are located in clusters at the end of the thick branches and are elongated, with sn  oblong and rounded front and a wavy edge. The flowers grow in dense, head-like clusters of 50 to 100 flowers, these are creamy white and have the fragrance of honey. The egg-shaped stone fruits have a size of 4 – 5 cm  x 3 cm with a thick shell and are usually single seeded. The seeds have a similar shape as the fruit and are crusty, chestnut-like with a glossy brownish color. The ripe fruit is edible. Only at an age of 40 to 50 years, the shea tree reaches its maximum yield. Shea is harvested in June and July.

Gewinnung

The fruits of the Shea tree are collected manually and stacked in containers or in a pit one above the other. The follows the removal of the pulp. Subsequently, the recovered Nuts are sun dried or dried ovens. Another possibility is to cook nuts first and then dry them in the sun. For the removal of the shell the nuts are ground in mills and screened in open mesh cages in order to separate the shells from the cores. Small parts are blown away by the wind, or shells fall to the ground and the seeds remain in the basket.

The seeds are extracted in an oven, crushed in a mill or a mortar. The oily mass is threaddd by hand until the shea butter turns white and separates from its impurities. For this, a large amount of water is required. The extract obtained in this case is boiled until the complete the water is completely removed, filtered and finally packaged.

Black shea butter is obtained by roasting the seeds about 15 to 30 minutes in hot sand or on a fire in suitable containers. The obtained crude butter is mainly used for culinary purposes. White shea butter however is not subjected to roasting.

Character

Farbe:

Weisse Sheabutter: Elfenbeinfarbig, leicht gelblich, wie weisse Schokolade, Weichwachs, schmalz- bis talgähnliches grün-gelbliches bis fast weisses Fett

Schwarze Shebutter: nicht homogen, grau, klumpig

Geruch:

Weisse Sheabutter: je nach Herkunft fettig, etwas fruchtig, aromatisch, nussig, leicht speckiger Geruch oder fettig, hölzern, würzig, rauchig

Schwarze Sheabutter: aromatisch, balsamartig, durchdringend, dominant, rauchig Sheabutter ist auch unter tropischen Bedingungen sehr lange haltbar, bis zu 4 Jahren. Das besondere an Sheabutter ist der hohe Anteil an unverseifbaren Bestandteilen (etwa 75 % Triterpene, daneben Ölsäure, Triterpenalkohole, Vitamin E, Beta-Karotin und Allantoin), der Anteil liegt zwischen 8 und 11 Prozent.

Für den Export wird Sheabutter meist raffiniert. Danach ist es dann geruchlos, zäh und in der Farbe weiss. Das Beta-Karotin geht dabei verloren.

Fettsäurezusammensetzung:

in %
Laurinsäure 0.4
Myristinsäure 0.3
Palmitinsäure 3 – 8
Palmitoleinsäure 0.2
Stearinsäure 28 – 45
Ölsäure 42 – 59
Linolsäure 3 – 9
Linolensäure 0.4
Arachinsäure 1 – 2
Physikalische Kennzahlen
Brechungsindex: n20/D 1.463 – 1.467
Dichte: d 15/15 0.916 – 0.918
Verseifungszahl: 178 – 198
Iodzahl: 52 – 66
Unverseibares: 2 – 11 %
Schmelzpunkt: 32 – 45 ° C
Titer ° C 48 – 54
Application

In pharmacy and medicine

In dermatherapy and to reduce the cholesterol level.

In cosmetics

High proportion of unsaponifiable is, under tropical conditions, very positive for the skin by making it smooth and prevents it from drying out.

In the food industry

As a substitute for cocoa butter, which is often much more expensive.

Source: Encyclopedia of vegetable fats and oils, Springer Verlag